Your "I have not some friends! (horrible!)" is horrible indeed and the reason of that is not the verb itself but the determiner "some" used in this negative sentence. It should be replaced by "any": I haven't any friends/I haven't got any friends.
In BrE "have" is used with the operator "do" to express "habitual actions":
Do you often have backaches?, otherwise "have (got)/haven't (got)" suffice.
Retired English Teacher