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The Problems with Paper
Due to an increase in literacy in the 18th century, there was a huge need for paper, which in turn demanded greater
efficiency in production. Efforts were made to step up paper production by inventing machines to do the time
consuming jobs previously completed by hand. In the late 18th century, Nicholas Luis Robert invented a machine that
could quickly produce a length of paper from cotton and linen rags on a wire mesh with squeeze rollers at one end. In
Europe and America, the mass-production of paper became a thriving industry supplying huge volumes of paper for a
long list of everyday items. This new industry, however, spelled the beginning of environmental disaster.
The explosion of print meant that there was a rag shortage, which instigated a search for alternative sources of fibre.
The industry turned to trees, which were rather abundant at the time, but this decision has proven to be imprudent
because trees are now becoming just as scarce as the cotton and linen rags of the 18th century. Hemp is being touted
as the great environmentally friendly alternative to wood pulp, but it would be a crop raised specifically for paper
production. Growing fibre crops to produce paper may soon become necessary, but right now industry watchdogs
believe that we should start by using some of our residual waste products – waste paper and agricultural byproducts.
Another concern, separate from the environmental problems arising from the overuse of trees, is that paper-making
itself is a dirty business. Toxic emissions from paper mills are persistent and tend to accumulate in the environment,
causing illness. Therefore, as well as seeking an alternative to trees, it is vital that the industry looks closely at
decreasing toxic emissions by limiting its use of harmful substances in the manufacturing process. Before this can
happen, more effort must be put into regulating chemical use in the paper-making industry.
Read Reading the Text above and choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.
The papermaking industry in the 18th century
caused an increase in literacy.
replaced rags with trees.
C. produced paper made from hemp.
D. used harmful substances
Experts believe that our first step should be to replace trees with
different plant fibres.
less dangerous chemicals.
C. selected left over rubbish.
D. specially grown crops.
Which statement is true according to the information in Reading Text 4?
The papermaking industry should not be allowed to self-regulate.
Chemical input and output should be monitored in the future.
C. Robert’s machine created better paper at a faster rate than previously managed.
D. Future paper manufacturers are committed to avoiding harmful chemicals.
Find ONE WORD in Reading the Texts that BEST matches each
the quality of being able to complete a task quickly and successfully
the manufacturing of a thing/item in very large quantities
successful, strong, healthy
started; brought about
collect or gather over a long period of time
Mnay Thnaks guys for helping =) I appreciate it