As you suspected, "one" doesn't quite work with "bread". You might use "kind" or "sort" or "type".
1. I like X from Y, not the dark kind/sort.
Or you can omit the pronoun, rearrange the sentence, or repeat the noun:
2. I like French cheese, not English.
3. I like French, not English, cheese.
4. I like French cheese, not English cheese.
I wonder too whether "country bread" (which is not a common combination in English) is a translation of "pain de campagne".
If so, "farmhouse loaf" might be better as a general translation; though that won't work in your examples!
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