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    #1

    Short of

    What does short of mean as in:1. There must be punishments, short of executions; 2. Department's abilities may not be brought to bear short of a presidential order. Thanks

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    #2

    Re: Short of

    Quote Originally Posted by vredes View Post
    What does short of mean as in:1. There must be punishments, short of executions; 2. Department's abilities may not be brought to bear short of a presidential order. Thanks
    ***NOT A TEACHER***(1) We don't want to execute the criminal. There must be some other ways in which to punish him. Jail? A big fine? Community service? Probation? (2) The department is having trouble making people obey its directions. The department needs the president to issue an order: Obey this department. Nobody wants to make the president angry. So everyone will start obeying the department's directions. Thank you.

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    #3

    Re: Short of

    So in (1) it means 'other than' right? Is it just 'other than' or it also implies that 'executions are most likely than other punishments'?
    Sorry I don't get explanation (2). Does it mean that the president may not issue the order for the department's cause?

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    #4

    Re: Short of

    Quote Originally Posted by vredes View Post
    So in (1) it means 'other than' right? Is it just 'other than' or it also implies that 'executions are most likely than other punishments'?
    Sorry I don't get explanation (2). Does it mean that the president may not issue the order for the department's cause?
    ***NOT A TEACHER***No problem. English can, indeed, be very confusing. No. 1 = Yes, you are correct. It would be a good idea to find some punishments that are other than executions. No. 2 = As I stated in my previous post, it means something like: No one respects the department. If the president issues an order like: I order everyone to cooperate with Department X, then people will cooperate with Department X because they know the president will be very angry if they disobey his order. Of course, no one wants the president to be angry with him/her. Thank you.

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    #5

    Re: Short of

    Quote Originally Posted by vredes View Post
    So in (1) it means 'other than' right? Is it just 'other than' or it also implies that 'executions are most likely than other punishments'?
    Sorry I don't get explanation (2). Does it mean that the president may not issue the order for the department's cause?
    Also this may be helping:
    bring to bear
    1.
    To exert; apply: bring pressure to bear on the student's parents.
    2. To put (something) to good use: "All of one's faculties are brought to bear in an effort to become fully incorporated into the landscape" (Barry Lopez).
    from bring to bear - definition of bring to bear by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.
    I didn't understand the sentence until I read the above.

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    #6

    Re: Short of

    Quote Originally Posted by vredes View Post
    What does short of mean as in:1. There must be punishments, short of executions; 2. Department's abilities may not be brought to bear short of a presidential order. Thanks
    "short of" means "except for".

    The department's abilities may not be brought to bear, (short of)(except for) a presidential order.

    "short of" very often appears at the beginning of the sentence.

    (Short of)(Except for) a presidential order, the department's abilities may not be brought to bear.

    (Short of)(Except for) actually doing his work for him, I did all I could to help him.

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