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    #1

    'Mostly'-adverb modifies the noun

    1. My friends are -mostly(adv)- non-smokers(n).
    2. The sauce is -mostly(adv)- cream(n).
    3. Hindi is mostly(adv) spoken(adj)(pp) in India.
    4. White dress is mostly(adv) used(adj)(pp) by many people.
    5. In Bosnia affected women are mostly(adv) Muslims(n).
    Note: adv = adverb, adj = adjective, pp = past participle
    In all above examples I can find the adverb - 'mostly' modifying the noun.
    Please comment on it.
    Thanks,
    Er.S.M.M.Hanifa

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    #2

    Re: 'Mostly'-adverb modifies the noun

    Which noun is being modified in 3 & 4?

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    #3

    Re: 'Mostly'-adverb modifies the noun

    How the adverb is modifying the adjectives in 3 & 4, the same way
    in 1, 2 & 5,the adverb is modifying nouns.
    But the rule says that adverb willn't modify noun.
    So the 'mostly' may be classified both adverb & adjective.
    Will the grammarian accept this?
    Thanks,
    Er.S.M.M.Hanifa

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    #4

    Re: 'Mostly'-adverb modifies the noun

    Quote Originally Posted by hanifasmm View Post
    How the adverb is modifying the adjectives in 3 & 4, the same way
    in 1, 2 & 5,the adverb is modifying nouns.
    But the rule says that adverb willn't modify noun.
    So the 'mostly' may be classified both adverb & adjective.
    Will the grammarian accept this?
    Thanks,
    Er.S.M.M.Hanifa
    You have already asked this question elsewhere, and I have answered it.

    b

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    #5

    Re: 'Mostly'-adverb modifies the noun

    I have raised the same question in another forum,
    but the answer is not convincing me, so I raised
    my doubt in this forum.
    Could you be kind enough to give me more
    convincing answer?
    Thanks,
    Er.S.M.M.Hanifa

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    #6

    Re: 'Mostly'-adverb modifies the noun

    It was in this forum: https://www.usingenglish.com/forum/a...dify-noun.html

    There are several responses there that seem to me convincing. In English, adverbs can't modify nouns.

    b

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    #7

    Re: 'Mostly'-adverb modifies the noun

    I have gone through the thread -
    https://www.usingenglish.com/forum/as...dify-noun.html.
    It explains for the word - 'exactly'. It is OK for me also.
    But when we are talking about the word 'mostly' and considering my
    examples, I have to draw a conclusion that 'mostly' must be classified
    to be adjective as well as adverb like other adverb - 'Monthly'.
    Could you help me please.
    Thanks,
    Er.S.M.M.Hanifa

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    #8

    Re: 'Mostly'-adverb modifies the noun

    In post 33 of that thread I answered your post 32, which dealt with your 'mostly' examples:
    1. My friends are -mostly(adv)- non-smokers(n).
    2. The sauce is -mostly(adv)- cream(n).
    3. Hindi is mostly(adv) spoken(adj)(pp) in India.
    4. White dress is mostly(adv) used(adj)(pp) by many people.
    5. In Bosnia affected women are mostly(adv) Muslims(n).
    ...
    I have no more to add. If the original post in this thread is substantially different from note 32 in that thread, I apologize. I suspect it is identical, but do not have the time or the inclination to check.

    b

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    #9

    Re: 'Mostly'-adverb modifies the noun

    Quote Originally Posted by hanifasmm View Post
    I have gone through the thread -
    https://www.usingenglish.com/forum/as...dify-noun.html.
    It explains for the word - 'exactly'. It is OK for me also.
    But when we are talking about the word 'mostly' and considering my
    examples, I have to draw a conclusion that 'mostly' must be classified
    to be adjective as well as adverb like other adverb - 'Monthly'.
    Could you help me please.
    Thanks,
    Er.S.M.M.Hanifa
    ***NOT A TEACHER***Good afternoon. I have reread the posts and several books. May I tell you what I have concluded about your sentence of "The sauce is mostly cream"? (1) One poster said perhaps the words "made of" are missing. If that is true, then "mostly" modifies "is made," the verb. (2) Another poster, IF (!!!) I understood him correctly, says that an adverb such as "mostly" really modifies the whole sentence. That is, perhaps your sentence really means: The sauce is cream TO THE EXTENT THAT IT HAS ALMOST NO OTHER INGREDIENTS. Or perhaps: IT IS MOSTLY THE CASE (SITUATION) THAT the sauce is cream. (3) Everybody agrees that an adverb CANNOT modify a noun. The word "modify" means "to change." How can any adverb change the meaning of a noun? (4) BUT (!!!) almost everyone agrees that an adverb like "mostly" CAN focus on a noun. That is, an adverb can shine the spotlight on a noun. Almost everyone agrees that "mostly" draws everyone's attention to the word "cream." But don't use the word "modify." Just say that "mostly" focuses on or distinguishes the noun "cream." (5) No, I don't think "mostly" can be used as an adjective. THANK YOU & HAVE A NICE DAY.

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    #10

    Re: 'Mostly'-adverb modifies the noun

    Quote Originally Posted by hanifasmm View Post
    But when we are talking about the word 'mostly' and considering my
    examples, I have to draw a conclusion that 'mostly' must be classified
    to be adjective as well as adverb like other adverb - 'Monthly'.
    Could you help me please.
    Thanks,
    Er.S.M.M.Hanifa
    That is based on an incorrect assumption; namely, that 'mostly' is modifying the noun, that comes directly after it. In your first example, it is not modifying 'cream'. The cream is not watered-down cream but 100% cream. Your non-smoker friends don't smoke- they don't pop outside for a cigarette once a fortnight- if they do, they aren't non-smokers. The nouns you say are being modified by 'mostly' are not. The affected women aren't 75% Muslim, but 75% of the women affected may be Muslim (to use a random number).

    Adverbs can modify sentences and phrases. Your examples, however, don't lead me to the conclusion you are drawing from them.

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