However, in the first, second and fourth sentences you might change from the past to "did" + infinitive if you want to add emphasis. For instance: Me: "Einstein didn't discover penicillin." You: "So who did discover penicillin?"
"She didn't win the Oscar this year." "Well, then, which actress did win the Oscar this year."
Remember that it is always "did" + infinitive and not "did" + past tense.
I don't know the exact rule for using "did," however. Perhaps others can help.