I have a question regarding -ing form.
1. A wolve jumped, howling.
2. I was awaken by a wolve howling.
3. I was awaken by a howling wolve.
Although, the "howling" is in the same -ing form, but there are differences among them from the point of view of English grammar.
Could someone give me a guide to the differences?
‘Howling’ is basically an adjective; be a howling success means: extremely successful as The film was a howling success.</SPAN>
In the first sentence howling is the present participle of the verb ‘howl’, and it also acts as adjective.
The second sentence could be meaningful if the expression ‘from a distance’ is added after ‘howling’ In that case ‘howling from a distance’ acts as participle phrase modifying the noun wolf.
In the third sentence the prepositional phrase ‘by a howling wolf’ modifies the vercb awaken. It means the long/irritating sound made by a wolf.