Student or Learner
Is "How far are you ?" a correct question to ask which progress has been made ?
‘How far’ is an idiom which means: to what distance, extent, or degree
So you can ask questions using this expression related to distance or to ascertain the extent or degree of any subject; as:
How far is Earth from the Sun?
How far are you willing to go to prove your love?
How far do I have to go to make you understand?
How far would you be willing to go to land your dream job?
How far have you got with your homework?
How far have they got with that report I asked for?
It's much more informal than "How much progress have you made with your homework?"