Student or Learner
The pain and violence of his childhood were carried over into his marriage.
Does 'violence of his childhood' mean the violence he suffered in his childhood or he was violent when he was a child?
- He was the subject of violence, which he deemed appropriate and carried over into his marriage
- He was violent as a child, and this carried over to his marriage.
If anything, I would edge towards the first rather than the second, as, if he was violent as a child, the writer would probably say that his violence continued throughout his marriage, rather than it being carried over (which implies change of sorts) to his marriage. But, as I said, it could really mean either with the lack of context given in that one sentence.