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  1. vagrantYip
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    #1

    adj + (in) + -ing

    Good morning, everyone.

    I wonder whether the form of "adj + -ing" is a short form of "adj + (in) + -ing".


    'in' can be omitted in the following examples:
    a. I am happy (in) working here.
    b. I am exhausted (in) cleaning up after you.
    c. I am busy (in) studying at the moment.

    'in' cannot be omitted in the following examples:
    d. This pill is effective in stopping cough.
    e. I am interested in joining your club.
    f. Adam is efficient in packing up the goods.

    Is "in" idiomatically left out in "adj + -ing" form? thanks very much

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    #2

    Re: adj + (in) + -ing

    Quote Originally Posted by vagrantYip View Post
    Good morning, everyone.

    I wonder whether the form of "adj + -ing" is a short form of "adj + (in) + -ing".


    'in' can be omitted in the following examples:
    a. I am happy (in) working here. with "in"
    b. I am exhausted from cleaning up after you. .... with "in"
    c. I am busy (in) studying at the moment. with "in"

    'in' cannot be omitted in the following examples:
    d. This pill is effective (in)(for) stopping cough.
    e. I am interested in joining your club.
    f. Adam is efficient in packing up the goods.
    2006

  2. Raymott's Avatar
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    #3

    Re: adj + (in) + -ing

    Quote Originally Posted by vagrantYip View Post
    Good morning, everyone.

    I wonder whether the form of "adj + -ing" is a short form of "adj + (in) + -ing".

    'in' can be omitted in the following examples:
    a. I am happy (in) working here.
    b. I am exhausted (in) cleaning up after you.
    c. I am busy (in) studying at the moment.

    'in' cannot be omitted in the following examples:
    d. This pill is effective in stopping cough.
    e. I am interested in joining your club.
    f. Adam is efficient in packing up the goods.

    Is "in" idiomatically left out in "adj + -ing" form? thanks very much
    No, 'in' isn't left out idiomatically. These sentences are of a slightly different form.
    In the sentences without 'in', you can reverse the order and use "makes". The complement, in some way, causes the condition that the adjective describes:
    a. I am happy working here. "Working here makes me (causes me to be) happy."
    b. I am exhausted cleaning up after you. "Cleaning up after you makes me exhausted."
    c. I am busy studying at the moment. "Studying at the moment makes me busy."

    You can't do this with d - f.
    d. This pill is effective in stopping cough. * Stopping the cough makes the pill effective. NO.

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