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  1. #1
    tungsam is offline Newbie
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    past and present participle

    can i know how to use has/had brought?I've been struggling with this problem since last year......

  2. #2
    Barb_D's Avatar
    Barb_D is offline Moderator
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    Re: past and present participle

    Hi, and welcome to Using English.

    Have you studied present perfect and past perfect?

    Take a look here and here:

    There are some quizzes here on Using English you can test yourself with.
    I'm not a teacher, but I write for a living. Please don't ask me about 2nd conditionals, but I'm a safe bet for what reads well in (American) English.

  3. #3
    tungsam is offline Newbie
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    Re: past and present participle

    thx a lot

  4. #4
    Raymott's Avatar
    Raymott is offline VIP Member
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    Re: past and present participle

    Quote Originally Posted by tungsam View Post
    can i know how to use has/had brought?I've been struggling with this problem since last year......
    Also, be aware that, for the verb "to have", 'had' is the past participle, 'having' is the present participle, and "have, has" are not participles at all.

    'has' is used as an auxiliary in the present perfect tense, but 'has' is not the present participle. "had" is.
    'had' is used as an auxiliary in the past perfect tense, but 'had' is not the past participle, unless the main verb is also "have".
    Each verb (generally) has only one past participle, which is used in all perfect tenses.

    In the constructions, "has brought" and "had brought", the past participle is "brought", not any form of "have". "Has, had" are auxiliaries in this case.

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