(I am not a teacher)
1) Can something ORIGINATE (have its origin in) from
something? Is the expression grammatically correct? Is it too "elevated"?
Yes. It is commonly used in this way and is not too elevated.
3) Can I say: "the reforms of Obama address the
society as a whole". Or is "to address" correct only when speaking to people, not when dealing with problems?
Yes, we hope that government officials will address our problems and concerns.
4) "As opposed to the republicans' (strategy), the strategy of
the democratic party proposes..." (meaning: the democratic follow an opposite strategy when dealing with the same problem).
Is this expression correct, referring to "as opposed to"? If not, what would be a valid alternative?
This is a correct use of the expression "as opposed to".
5) "The comedy has a tragic ending, this way
resembling a drama". This sentence doesn't sound good. Can "this/that way" be used in this context, as alternative to "thus"?
Perhaps, "in this way it resembles a drama".
6) can a choice be "driven" (by something positive/negative, like an attitude or feeling)?
Yes. Choices can be driven by fear, greed, etc.
7) "not to be" or "to not be" (meaning: "in order not to be", indicating casuality). Is this the only option or can I use the second one as well? When can the second one be used (I think I've already heard that construction around).
---- um, In order to not be considered an idiot, you need to behave sensibly. Not to be too direct about it. --- Does that help?
8) can I "incur" a mistake (make a mistake)?
No. I'd say you would incur (bring upon yourself) the consequences of your mistake.
9) Designation for? Does "designation" requires "for" in contexts such as: "Revolution (the term) is a designation for any major shift in man's History".
I would say, Yes. (again, I'm not a teacher)
10) "The condition for not being called an idiot is to behave sensibly". Is this construcion for the term "condition" fine?
I think this is technically correct but it sounds off for some reason. Perhaps someone else will offer more information about using "condition for".
Student or Learner