(1) You say that these words are driving you bananas.
(2) As I type, no one else has replied yet, so may I start?
(3) I think that surrogate usually applies to a person. It means
something like a substitute. Alternative is something like a choice:
Some students attend college classes, but others use the alternative of
taking classes on the Internet.
(4) bribe refers to the money that someone gives, and bribery refers to
the act of giving a bribe. Kickback means that I help you make some
money, and you later give me some money as a "thank you." Kickbacks
are usually secret and not legal; payoff is something like a bribe.
(5) misappropriation means something like: the government collects taxes
to build schools, but someone in government uses the money to buy a
big house and a fancy car; embezzlement means something like a person
works for a bank, and he secretly changes the bank records so that he
can get the money transferred to his account.
(6) I think a good bilingual dictionary would be very helpful.
Student or Learner