However, as a saying, it normally means to continue along the path you are meant to be on, whether it's with work or something personal.
"I was doing a university degree. It was very difficult and I kept thinking about giving up. However, I reminded myself that I would be able to get a better job once I had a degree, and that helped me to keep on track. I graduated last month!"
Note: in BrE I think we would be just as likely (possibly more likely) to say "stay on track".
Student or Learner