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    #1

    present result

    Hi,
    I have been wondering if sentences in which no present state is visible can express present result (depending on context), eg:

    I have said so
    I have given you proof
    I have stood your guarantee
    He has doubtles informed you that...
    Your Highness has permitted me to...

    or do they have to be regarded as perfect of experience?
    Thank you

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    #2

    Re: present result

    If you understand that the use of the present perfect is natural and correct in such utterances, does it really matter what labels you apply?

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    #3

    Re: present result

    Well, it kind of does as it has to do with the corpus I am trying to put together. So if you wouldnīt mind could you help me with this?
    Thanks

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    #4

    Re: present result

    Quote Originally Posted by Kudla View Post
    Hi,
    I have been wondering if sentences in which no present state is visible can express present result (depending on context), eg:

    I have said so
    I have given you proof
    I have stood your guarantee
    He has doubtles informed you that...
    Your Highness has permitted me to...

    or do they have to be regarded as perfect of experience?
    Thank you
    In general, the present perfect is a present tense. So, if I said, "I've closed the door", it's generally inferrable that, at the time of speaking, the door is closed.

    But there are obvious exceptions, so you cannot make this a general rule. (Someone might have opened the door between the time I closed it, and the time I said that sentence).

    So, the answer to your question is "They can express a present state, but they don't do so of logically necessity."

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    #5

    Re: present result

    Thanks a lot. As for the exceptions I am aware of something like that but what I would primarily like to know is whether you as native speakers percieve a sentence like I HAVE SAID SO as rather referring to a present state, e.g. YOU KNOW IT or to a past action that was performed (once you say something you canīt take it back), e.g. I ALREADY DID IT
    - considering that I HAVE SAID SO is an answer to someone who doesnīt believe you to be down and out
    Thank you!

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    #6

    Re: present result

    I find that question almost impossible to answer. Once I start analysing my own utterances, I begin to lose confidence in my ability to do so.

    I think that when I say 'I have (already) told you', my personal equivalent of 'I have said so', my brain is blending the ideas of 'I told you' (past) and 'you should know' (present).

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    #7

    Re: present result

    /A learner/

    I have read a book, had a bath and got to bed afterwards. After two hours of sleeping I woke and got up.

    I see the present perfect as the only verb aspect which links the past and the rest. It tells us what in the past caused the result, either single or accumulated, at the end of it.
    Last edited by e2e4; 30-Nov-2010 at 20:46.

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    #8

    Re: present result

    Quote Originally Posted by e2e4 View Post
    I have read a book, had a bath and got to bed afterwards. After two hours of sleep(ing) I woke up and got up.

    I see the present perfect as the only verb aspect which links the past and the rest. It tells us what in the past caused the result, either single or accumulated, at the end of it.
    Your example, however, is not normal English, assuming that had and got are intended as past participles, resulting in three present perfect forms.

    The natural English would be to use the past simple for all the verbs here; the past perfect would be possible for the three I have underlined.

    It would be more natural to go rather than to get to bed in that sentence.

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    #9

    Re: present result

    Hi,
    Is it true that you can say something like:

    I have been to Paris, (I have) graduated and (I have) got a job - where all the verb phrases are in the present perfect? (Under the condition that those actions donīt show the sequence of events but just your achievements) and you therefore canīt use temporal adverbials like then, after that and so on?
    Thanks

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    #10

    Re: present result

    I don't understand why this below wouldn't be correct

    A: Have you been to any of big European cities, this year?
    B: I've been to Paris. I've been to London. I've been to Moscow.

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