"Would" has several uses:
It is the past tense of "will".
It can be used to talk about past habits in the same way as "used to". "When I was young I would/used to go to school by bus" for example.
It is used in conditional sentences, "If I were rich, I would buy a new car" for example.
"Would have been" is used to talk about past hypothetical situations, "It would have been better not to go out in the snow, then I wouldn't have slipped and fallen". I did go out, I did slip and fall.
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