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    #1

    Smile Independent participle

    Which option is acceptable, (1) or (2) ?

    ______________ over her father's company, Caroline proceeded to manage it very well.
    (1) Having taken (2) Going to take

    In my opinion, #1 is acceptable. Because it can be rewritten as written.

    After Caroline has taken over her father's company, she proceeded to manage it very well.

    However, I think #2 is unacceptable. I am confused with the following sentence. Can it be rewritten as following?

    After Caroline went to take over her father's company, she proceeded to manage it very well.

  1. lauralie2's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: Independent participle

    ______________ over her father's company, Caroline proceeded to manage it very well.

    (1) Having taken
    (2) Going to take


    Caroline, after having taken over her father's company, proceeded to manage it very well. <the tenses are compatible>

    Caroline, going to take over her father's company, proceeded to manage it very well. <the tenses are not compatible>

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    #3

    Re: Independent participle

    Quote Originally Posted by lauralie2 View Post
    ______________ over her father's company, Caroline proceeded to manage it very well.

    (1) Having taken
    (2) Going to take


    Caroline, after having taken over her father's company, proceeded to manage it very well. <the tenses are compatible>

    Caroline, going to take over her father's company, proceeded to manage it very well. <the tenses are not compatible>
    Non-finite VPs are tenseless. IMO the problem lies here:

    There is a gradience between a semi-auxiliary such as be compelled to and an occurrence of the copula BE followed by an adjectival or participial construction such as bound to or going to.
    One criterion of importance here is the ability of what follows BE to stand at the beginning of a supplementive clause.

    Compelled to take stern measures, the administration lost popularity.
    ?Bound to take stern measures, the administration lost popularity.
    *Going to take stern measures, the administration lost popularity.

    By this criterion, the combinations able to and willing to are less clearly independent than their negatives unable to and unwilling to:
    1. Unable/Unwilling to resist, Matilda agreed to betray her country.
    2. ?Able/? Willing to resist, Matilda declined to betray her country.

    Of these parallel sentences, #1 is clearly acceptable, whereas #2 is more
    marginal. But acceptability judgments tend to vary in this area.

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