Here's another paragraph.
Does compensate here mean adding some more points to that youngster's test result as compensation for his underpriviledged background?
Sometimes they identify students whose high potential has not been previously recognized, but there are many things they do not do. For example, they do not compensate for gross social inequality, and thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.
Student or Learner