Student or Learner
It the underline present perfect or perfect participle? Depending on it, the meaning can differ greatly, so I'd like to know exactly.
Coral reefs make up some of the most diverse ecosystems on earth. (Having been) built over thousands of years by tiny organisms, the reefs are a haven for countless different forms of life, some of which are so strange as to almost seem alien.
If it is present perfect, it means "now it has the state of being built..." and otherwise it would mean " As it was build before..", but I guess it is the former, but its form is quite similar to perfect participle, so it's quite confusing.
A kind answer,please!!!
***** NOT A TEACHER *****
(1) I, too, am waiting for a teacher to answer your question.
(2) I do not know enough grammar to answer you with confidence.
(3) All I can do is to offer some information I was able to find in
Professors House and Harman's Descriptive English Grammar.
(a) They have a somewhat similar example:
Our team having been defeated, we were depressed all evening.
The professors write:
The present perfect participle is used in the absolute phrase.
Having been defeated is a transitive verb in the passive voice.
The authors explain that the present perfect passive consists of
having been (present perfect participle of be + past participle of a
Now let's apply this to your sentence (which I have changed
slightly for easier analysis):
The coral reefs having been built over thousands of years
by tiny organisms, they are a haven for countless different
forms of life.
(a) Do you think that we can analyze "The coral reefs ... tiny
organisms" as an absolute phrase?
(b) Do you think that we can say that having been built
is a transitive verb in the passive voice?