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    #1

    Shall and Should

    May I know the exact meaning of the following statements?

    1. The candidate shall perform not less than 100 autopsies during the training period.

    2. The candidate should perform not less than 100 autopsies during the training period.

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    #2

    Re: Shall and Should

    Quote Originally Posted by rkrish View Post
    1. The candidate shall perform not less than 100 autopsies during the training period.

    2. The candidate should perform not less than 100 autopsies during the training period.
    #1: A formal obligation is placed on the student to perform 100 autopsies. The use of shall here is legalistic.
    #2: The meaning is not so clear, and will depend on the context.
    An obligation may be involved, in which case #2 has virtually the same meaning as #1, though it is less rigidly legalistic.
    It may just be a recommendation.
    It may be an obligation acknowledged, but with the recognition that the obligation may not be fulfilled.

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    #3

    Re: Shall and Should

    Thanks Five.. So does it mean, "Shall" implies 'Must do', while should indicates, not mandatory..?

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    #4

    Re: Shall and Should

    Shall is very close in meaning to must here.
    Should does not have the mandatory force of shall. It is not possible to be more precise than that with should.

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    #5

    Re: Shall and Should

    ***** I am not a teacher *****

    As an aside, "no fewer than 100 autopsies" would be better than "not less than 100 autopsies."

    "Less" should be reserved for uncountable things, "fewer" for countable: There was less rain today than there was yesterday, but fewer people watched the match because most went home last night.

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    #6

    Re: Shall and Should

    Quote Originally Posted by Slot View Post
    "Less" should be reserved for uncountable things, "fewer" for countable: There was less rain today than there was yesterday, but fewer people watched the match because most went home last night.
    If you are taking examinations in English, you need to remember this. However, in real life it matters less and less. Many native speakers (in BrE at least) either do not understand the difference or, if they do, don't bother to observe it.

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    #7

    Re: Shall and Should

    Quote Originally Posted by fivejedjon View Post
    If you are taking examinations in English, you need to remember this. However, in real life it matters less and less. Many native speakers (in BrE at least) either do not understand the difference or, if they do, don't bother to observe it.
    It is sobering to think that much of what (good) learners or (foreign) teachers of English take for granted is almost totally ignored by some native speakers.... I just recently found myself having to explain to an Australian friend the difference, in writing, between Mr Lewis's car and The Lewises' house. No kidding!!!

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    #8

    Re: Shall and Should

    Quote Originally Posted by Slot View Post
    As an aside, "no fewer than 100 autopsies" would be better than "not less than 100 autopsies."

    "Less" should be reserved for uncountable things, "fewer" for countable: There was less rain today than there was yesterday, but fewer people watched the match because most went home last night.
    Quote Originally Posted by fivejedjon View Post
    If you are taking examinations in English, you need to remember this. However, in real life it matters less and less. Many native speakers (in BrE at least) either do not understand the difference or, if they do, don't bother to observe it.
    It's a slippery slope toward ain't.

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    #9

    Re: Shall and Should

    Quote Originally Posted by wace View Post
    It is sobering to think that much of what (good) learners or (foreign) teachers of English take for granted is almost totally ignored by some native speakers.
    It is also sobering to think that some teachers of English, both native and non-native speakers, teach to their students forms that have not been commonly used for many years.

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    #10

    Smile Re: Shall and Should

    Quote Originally Posted by fivejedjon View Post
    It is also sobering to think that some teachers of English, both native and non-native speakers, teach to their students forms that have not been commonly used for many years.
    Hey, fivejedjon, you don't actually need that to following teach in your sentence - their students is in the position of indirect object there, so no need for a preposition.

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