Student or Learner
- those who do something
Health Benefits of Coffee | Suite101.com
Coffee is a natural diuretic, which can cause humans to urinate more frequently. Those who drink large amounts of coffee on a regular basis may find themselves running to the rest room more often.
Drinking Coffee Helps Avoid Prostate Cancer, Study Says - FoxNews.com
The men least likely to develop lethal prostate cancer were those drinking six or more cups of coffee a day, but even those drinking no more than three cups a day lowered the risk by 30 percent, the 12-year study found.
- those doing something
Are these phrases interchangeable?
I don't see any example of them not being interchangable, but there is one clear difference. When you use a who-clause, you can choose whether you want to use a simple tense or a continuous tense. There is no such possibility when you use a participle.
NOT A TEACHER
(1) Birdeen's Call gave us an excellent reminder: the adjective clause can change the
form of the verb.
(2) Professor Quirk in his famous A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language
(1985 edition, p. 1263) gives this example:
The person writing reports is my colleague.
(3) The distinguished professor then tells us that a relative (adjective) clause is
much more explicit (clear; no confusion; exact):
The person who WILL WRITE/ WILL BE WRITING/ WRITES/ IS WRITING/ WROTE/WAS WRITING
(4) On page 1297, the professor makes a very interesting point that you and I might
consider when we write something.
(a) He gives this sentence (I have added a bit):
Do you know the man and woman in the corner nearest the door TALKING TO JOHN?
The great professor explains that "many users" would prefer " WHO ARE TALKING TO
JOHN." Why? Because the head ("man and woman" ) is pretty far away from the
Thus, maybe it might have been better if the Fox News item had used the adjective
clause, for there are 8 words between the head "men" and the participial phrase.
(5) Finally, the professor says something very interesting:
"It must be emphasized that -ing forms in postmodifying clauses should NOT [my
emphasis] be seen as abbreviated progressive forms in relative clauses."
IF (a big "if"!!!) I understand him, that means that "drinking coffee" is NOT a shorter
way to say "who drinks/drank/ is drinking [etc.] coffee." Most books for the average
person tell us that it is an abbreviation. Professor Quirk disagrees.
Thanks for your great question. I learned a lot.