Student or Learner
If there's a comma between the clauses, Is "foretelling"'s subject Freud or the previous clause? Does it mean "...and Freud foretold his later ...." or "this fact foretold his later..."?
ex)...Freud investigated the structure of the reproductive organs in eels, foretelling his later preoccupation with sex.....
I don't know how to categorize this, but it seems an exceptional grammar case. Do you make any difference between "participle clause" and "present participle"?
Secondly, I think you've learnt the wrong rule relating to dependent clauses - they are more likely to refer to the whole main clause if there is a comma.
"My cat has been sick lately, which worries me." The dependent clause can only refer to the whole main clause. (You'll agree that's it not merely the cat that's worrying; it's that she's sick - the whole clause).
"My cat has been sick lately, persuading me to consult a vet." Same. The cat herself is not persuading me to consult a vet.
Yes, I'd call it a present participial clause.
"I took a bus, arriving at school at 7" => "I took a bus and I arrived at school at 7". In this case, the second clause's subject is also "I" not the whole previous clause.
How can you tell numerous these examples from the one we dealt with?
I feel stupid, but I don't think I've encountered this type of example a lot. Maybe I've perceived them in a wrong way for a long time.
Without the comma, the eels are doing the foretelling.
Also, what do you think about:
"My cat has been sick lately, persuading me to consult a vet."
It's possible that, in most sentences like this, "persuading" should refer back to "cat", but the context here suggests otherwise?
I do agree with you by context, it does refer to the clause as a whole. But having said that, such constructions are by no means elegant or well-turned, if you ask me.
They remind me a bit of a phrase used by French teachers to teach the gérondif and how it should refer clearly to a proper subject:
Riding my bicycle through the countryside the other day, a cow knocked me over.
How did the cow get his bike?