]No. There is no such book. If there were, it would be thousands of pages long.
Most questions you have will be answered by:
Quirk, Randolph, Greenbaum, Sidney, Leech, Geoffrey and Svartik, Jan (1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, London: Longman
Huddleston, Rodney & Pullum, Geoffrey K (2002) The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, Cambridge: CUP
However, these are of more use to academics than to learners. For learners,
Swan, Michael (1980) Practical English Usage (3rd ed, 2005), Oxford: OUP
is very helpful, but it certainly won't answe every question you have. That;s what usingenglish.com is for.
Student or Learner