what are the differences between a clause and a sentence?
A clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a verb. If if makes sense by itself it is an independent clause, and can function on its own as a sentence.
The dog saw the cat. This is an independent clause functioning as a complete sentence
If the clause does not make sense by itself, then it is a dependent clause and must be used as part of a complex sentence.
so the cat ran away This is a dependent clause. It contains a subject (cat) and a verb (ran), but it does not express a complete thought.
The complex sentence looks like this:
The dog saw the cat, so the cat ran away.