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  1. Member
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    Having been ruled...

    Hi forum!

    Inspired by another thread I was looking for a having been + p. participle structure and have found one:

    Due to its important strategic location, Malta has experienced a lot of change, having been ruled by many nations including the Greeks, French, Romans, Spanish and British.

    OK, it is clearly a passive structure. Also the meaning for me is clear.
    It comes closest to the present perfect structure, but there is that -ing...

    Is it the present perfect passive with integrated gerund?

    Thanks for your aid in advance!

  2. 5jj's Avatar
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    Re: Having been ruled...

    We have part of HAVE (the present participle) used with a past participle to form a present perfect construction, combined with part of BE (the past participle) used with a past participle to form a passive construction.

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