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    #1

    remained/remaining

    Dear all,

    Why the author use "remained competitive", not "remaining competitive" in the following sentence?

    "without the structural reforms needed to ensure their economies remained competitive."

    Thank you

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    #2

    Re: remained/remaining

    Quote Originally Posted by idiotmike View Post
    Dear all,

    Why the author use "remained competitive", not "remaining competitive" in the following sentence?

    "without the structural reforms needed to ensure their economies remained competitive."

    Thank you
    The complete sentence would help, but let me provide an example, " 'The system failed' without the structural reforms needed to ensure (that) their economies remained competitive." "Remained" because it is a statement about a past situation. "Remaining" wouldn't work, first, because as stated, it is a past situation. Second, to use the"ing" form would require some auxiliaries such as "were remaining to be".

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    #3

    Re: remained/remaining

    We can use the -ing form about past situations, but note the different way in which it is used:

    1. ... without the structural reforms needed to ensure their economies remained competitive.
    2....without reforming the antiquated practices remaining in the industry.

    in #1, 'remained is the past tense of the verb; in #2 'remaining' is the (unfortunately-named) present participle acting as an alternative to a relative clause -'who/which remain/remained/will remain'. Despite its name, the present participle can be used for past, present and future situations; the time will be clear from the context, as it is here:

    Past: The council gave no assistance to people remaining in the village after the aid workers departed.
    Present: The people remaining in the village say they need no assistance.
    Future: People remaining in the village next week will have to look after themselves.

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    #4

    Re: remained/remaining

    "The council gave no assistance to people remaining in the village after the aid workers departed."

    Can I use "remained" in the sentence above? "......assistance to people (who) remained in the village after the aid workers departed"?

    Thank you.

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    #5

    Re: remained/remaining

    Quote Originally Posted by idiotmike View Post
    "The council gave no assistance to people remaining in the village after the aid workers departed."

    Can I use "remained" in the sentence above? "......assistance to people (who) remained in the village after the aid workers departed"?

    Thank you.
    This is possible only with 'who'.

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