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    #1

    has been=had been

    "He maintained that action has been taken against miscreants and arrests had also been made" In this context what would be a simple definition.of underlined sentence whether has been=had been in this sentence.

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    #2

    Re: has been=had been

    Quote Originally Posted by 1235 View Post
    "He maintained that action has been taken against miscreants and arrests had also been made" In this context what would be a simple definition.of underlined sentence whether has been=had been in this sentence.
    It is never true to say "has been = had been". There are times, usually when we are dealing with reported speech, when, if the situation reported is still true at the time of reporting, that we can use the tenses of the original utterance rather than backshifting them.

    George: "Action has been taken"

    George said that action has/had been taken.


    Without backshifting, we are saying, "Action has been taken" - there is present relevance. With backshifting, we are saying that there may be no present relevance to the taking of the action.

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    #3

    Re: has been=had been

    Quote Originally Posted by fivejedjon View Post
    It is never true to say "has been = had been". There are times, usually when we are dealing with reported speech, when, if the situation reported is still true at the time of reporting, that we can use the tenses of the original utterance rather than backshifting them.

    George: "Action has been taken"

    George said that action has/had been taken.


    Without backshifting, we are saying, "Action has been taken" - there is present relevance. With backshifting, we are saying that there may be no present relevance to the taking of the action.
    Thank you sir you really solved my problem

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