Hi, Hela. Here are my guesstimates. If you see the emoticon , it means I am 90-ish% sure.
Replacement results in, He was jobless (adjective; subject complement).1) He is without a job = subject complement or adverbial ?
Active results in, Her students respect her. (respect, vb. transitive). Structurally, the phrase 'her students' functions as the object of 'by'. In terms of semantics, it functions as the semantic subject.2) She is respected by her students.
'of . . .' is ambiguous. Archiac, polite;e.g., a question to be answered by the Supreme Court Justice / asked the Supreme Court Justice (indirect object) a question (direct object); Modern: one of the Supreme Court Justice's questions / a question of the Supreme Court Justice (object of 'a question').3a) The senator asked a question of the Supreme Court Justice.
Variation: I ordered something to eat for myself (indirect object).3b) I ordered myself something to eat.
purchased the Smithsonian [Musuem] the World War I plane. (semantically awkward). Not all verb can undergo the IO-DO switch; e.g., I gave money (DO) to the church (IO) / I gave the church (IO) money (DO), but, I donated money (DO) to the church (IO) / *I donated the church (IO) money (DO).3c)The antique dealer purchased the World War I plane for The Smithsonian [Museum]
Replacement yields, "She is above the rest in her class. In other words, what is her academic status? (adjective); Cf. Where is she located in time and space? (adverb); e.g., She's in the gym, standing in line with her fellow students. She's first in line. Her position in time and space is ahead of her fellow students (adverb).4) She is ahead of her fellow students.
far below (adverb of location, position, place).5) The Indus was only a glinting trickle far below.
The IO intervenes. Ex: She talked to me (IO) about her problem (DO) / She talked about her problem (DO) *to me (IO). talk is one of the verbs that houses its DO within, so it isn't always overt; e.g, Talk to me. Talk to me about your family. Cf. Talk about your family.6) I talk to myself.
Replacement yields, I am late with the rent. Adjective phrase.8)I am behind in my rent.
The adverbs 'quite' and 'such' modify the adjective 'good'. 'time' and 'friends' are nouns: adv + adj + noun.9) a) We had quite a good time. = S V Od?
b) They are such good friends. = S V Cs?
'for good' (never to come back again) modifies the verb 'left', which makes it an adverb.10) All the people in the house left for good. = SV + ?
Student or Learner