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  1. rainous's Avatar
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    #1

    using present participles in the middle of sentence.

    1. To make the situation worse, even more and more usable water resources are being polluted, causing the rise in the cost of utilizing them as well as more threats to public health.

    2. To make the situation worse, even more and more usable water resources are being polluted, causing the rise in the cost of utilizing them as well as threatening public health.

    Are these two sentences grammatically correct?

    I initially wrote the second sentence but rephrased the last part to make it look like the first one because I thought it kind of sounded better.

    But what I am more curious about is if I decided to go with the second sentence, would it be OK to use it as it is or would it better to change it like below:

    3. To make the situation worse, even more and more usable water resources are being polluted, raising the cost of utilizing them as well as threatening public health.

    How does the 3rd one look compared to the 2nd one? Is it grammatically correct and safe to use?

    The usage of present participles are very confusing to me.

    Thanks for your help.
    Last edited by rainous; 20-Sep-2011 at 17:08.

  2. Bennevis's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: using present participles in the middle of sentence.

    1. To make the situation worse, even more and more usable water resources are being polluted, causing the rise in the cost of utilizing them and more threats to public health.

    2. To make the situation worse, even more and more usable water resources are being polluted, causing the rise in the cost of utilizing them and threatening public health.

    3. To make the situation worse, even more and more usable water resources are being polluted, raising the cost of utilizing them and threatening public health.

    Substitute "and" for "as well as", and it's going to make things easier for you.

  3. Bennevis's Avatar
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    #3

    Re: using present participles in the middle of sentence.

    This article from a reliable source gives us a comprehensive account of participle clauses in English.

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    #4

    Re: using present participles in the middle of sentence.

    [QUOTE=rainous;801943]

    The usage of present participles are very confusing to me.


    REMINDER: NOT A TEACHER


    (1) Teacher Bennevis has given us an excellent answer and a great link.

    (2) Don't feel bad: participles also confuse us ordinary native speakers.

    (3) I thought that you would like some extra information that I have learned.

    (4) One great grammarian named George O. Curme gives this sentence:

    He mistook me for a friend, so that he caused me some embarrassment.

    He calls "so that he caused me some embarrassment" a clause of pure

    result. He then explains that we often abridge (shorten) it to a participial

    clause (or "phrase"): He mistook me for a friend, (thus) causing me some

    embarrassment.

    (a) The great professor says that "(thus) causing me some embarrassment" does

    NOT modify the first part of the sentence. On the other hand, some books feel that

    it DOES. Of course, I do not know who is right.

    (5) If we take Teacher Bennevis's excellent third sentence, then maybe (maybe) the

    unabridged sentence would be something like:


    To make the situation even worse, more and more usable water resources are being

    polluted, so that they raise the cost of utilizing them and threaten public health.

  4. rainous's Avatar
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    #5

    Re: using present participles in the middle of sentence.

    [QUOTE=TheParser;802275]
    Quote Originally Posted by rainous View Post

    The usage of present participles are very confusing to me.


    REMINDER: NOT A TEACHER


    (1) Teacher Bennevis has given us an excellent answer and a great link.

    (2) Don't feel bad: participles also confuse us ordinary native speakers.

    (3) I thought that you would like some extra information that I have learned.

    (4) One great grammarian named George O. Curme gives this sentence:

    He mistook me for a friend, so that he caused me some embarrassment.

    He calls "so that he caused me some embarrassment" a clause of pure

    result. He then explains that we often abridge (shorten) it to a participial

    clause (or "phrase"): He mistook me for a friend, (thus) causing me some

    embarrassment.

    (a) The great professor says that "(thus) causing me some embarrassment" does

    NOT modify the first part of the sentence. On the other hand, some books feel that

    it DOES. Of course, I do not know who is right.

    (5) If we take Teacher Bennevis's excellent third sentence, then maybe (maybe) the

    unabridged sentence would be something like:


    To make the situation even worse, more and more usable water resources are being

    polluted, so that they raise the cost of utilizing them and threaten public health.
    You really went way above and beyond.

    You are a legend.

    Thank you.
    Last edited by rainous; 22-Sep-2011 at 06:05.

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