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    #1

    Tenses- back to basics

    Hi,

    I am enrolling on a Celta course in the middle of November and have just completed the interview. I was under the impression that my knowledge of tenses was ok (12 tenses) but I do struggle to identify them and put them into action. Then the interviewer mentioned something about 4 levels ; i.e first, second, third, fourth and it completely threw me off guard. I am trying to do some research before I start and was wondering if you could recommend the best websites to use that outline things simply, I notice the web is full of such resources and I am getting very confused.

    Many thanks in advance for your help

    Jenny

  1. 5jj's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: Tenses- back to basics

    I know something about tenses, but I do not know what the interviewer meant by 'levels'.

    A book that will be invaluable for years in your TEFL career is Michael Swan's Practical English Usage, OUP. Swan's coverage of tenses (and many other things) is sound.

    For a boring but thorough look at how the tenses are formed, try: http://www.gramorak.com/Articles/VerbForms.pdf

  2. Bennevis's Avatar
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    #3

    Re: Tenses- back to basics

    The Twelve Tenses of English


    PRESENT (main verb)
    I study English.
    He studies English.

    PAST (past tense of main verb)
    I studied English.
    He studied English.

    FUTURE (will or shall + main verb)
    I will study English.
    He will study English.

    PRESENT PERFECT (have or has + past participle of verb)
    I have studied English.
    He has studied English.

    PAST PERFECT (had + past participle of verb)
    I had studied English.
    He had studied English.

    FUTURE PERFECT (will or shall + have + past participle of verb)
    I will have studied English.
    He will have studied English.

    PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (form of "be" verb + "ing" form of main verb)
    I am studying English.
    He is studying English.

    PAST PROGRESSIVE (past tense of form "be" verb + "ing" form of main verb)
    I was studying English.
    He was studying English.

    FUTURE PROGRESSIVE (will or shall +be + "ing" form of main verb)
    I will be studying English.
    He will be studying English.

    PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (have or has + been + "ing" form of main verb)
    I have been studying English.
    He has been studying English.

    PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (had + been + "ing" form of main verb)
    I had been studying English.
    He had been studying English.

    FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (will or shall + have + been + "ing" form of main verb)
    I will have been studying English.
    He will have been studying English.


  3. 5jj's Avatar
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    #4

    Re: Tenses- back to basics

    Quote Originally Posted by Bennevis View Post
    The Twelve Tenses of English


    PRESENT (main verb)
    PAST (past tense of main verb)
    FUTURE (will or shall + main verb)
    PRESENT PERFECT (have or has + past participle of verb)
    PAST PERFECT (had + past participle of verb)
    FUTURE PERFECT (will or shall + have + past participle of verb)
    PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (form of "be" verb + "ing" form of main verb
    PAST PROGRESSIVE (past tense of form "be" verb + "ing" form of main verb)
    FUTURE PROGRESSIVE (will or shall +be + "ing" form of main verb)PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (have or has + been + "ing" form of main verb)
    PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (had + been + "ing" form of main verb)
    FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (will or shall + have + been + "ing" form of main
    That's the traditional picture. However, it should be noted that most grammarians today consider that English has only two tenses - the so-called present and past; the perfect and progressive (or continuous) forms are aspects.

    Will (and shall) do not form the future tense of English. They are merely one way of expressing the future - there are several others.

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