Is there a term to refer to a journalist/reporter who is dispatched abroad to cover international events on a regular basis?
A 'foreign correspondent'. As the name suggest (correspondence), early newspapers relied on people who wrote letters- and 'correspondent' can still be used in this sense - though usually with reference to someone being a 'good/bad/unreliable... correspondent': 'I meant to write. but you know me. I'm a lousy correspondent.'