Student or Learner
"But you had to have been scared. The day they said, Piers, it's over." Would there be a difference between "had to have been" and "must have been" in the sentence?
What's the difference between "have to have been" and "had to have been"? As in "Yes, maybe you have to have been there." Does it mean that someone has to be there when something else happens?
Last edited by ostap77; 23-Mar-2012 at 15:19.
"You don't even have to have been a fan of sports or a fan of the NBA to have heard all of this hoorah this week about the former NBA player, John Amaechi, who has written a book and who has come out and announced that he is gay." What does "have to have been" here mean? Is it close in meaning to "have to be"?
Yes, that's a bit closer to the meaning.
Is the sentence an exact quotation from someone, or did you make it up yourself?
Last edited by JohnParis; 23-Mar-2012 at 16:14.
It's part of the quotation from COCAE. I'm looking to get an answer to questions in posts 3 and 4.
What about this sentence? "It has to have been a difficult year also. In some ways there's -- there's been a series of disclosures about the Biosphere 2 project." Does it mean here "It must have been....."? What would be the difference in meaning, if I changed it to "It had to have been........"?
Last edited by ostap77; 23-Mar-2012 at 21:12.
“It has to have been …” The speaker is making this judgement now.
“It had to have been …” The speaker is referring to a judgement that could have been made at a time in the past (but following the year in question). You still need two events in the past for this.
“2010 has to have been a bad year for him”. The speaker is making this assessment now, on the basis of what he knows happened in 2010. There is only one time in the past referred to – 2010.
“2010 had to have been a bad year for him. And then in 2011, his wife died.” Here we have two time periods in the past. The point that the speaker is asserting is that this judgement (about 2010) could have been made in 2011 before his wife died.
"Yes. Yes. I suspect that it had to have been among the great moments in Nixon's life." By saying "had to have been..'' the speaker is saying it was one of the great moments before he died, right? Could I say "it has to have been......", if I was making this assessment now?
So I guess I could say to my girl friend who came home tired from work either "It has to have been a hard day." or "It had to have been a hard day."