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  1. keannu's Avatar
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    #1

    including an elephant

    Does the first "including" describe "each bill" or "an animal" What difference does a comma make?

    ex) In South Africa, for instance, each bill has a colorful image of an animal, including an elephant, a lion, and a buffalo. Likewise, a Tanzanian bill has a picture of a giraffe, and a Ugandan bill shows various animals, including a hippopotamus.
    Last edited by keannu; 23-Apr-2012 at 00:25.

  2. 5jj's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: including an elephant

    Sorry, keannu, but I gave up before I got to the end of your question(s). Try prioritising what you'd like to know, and ask one question at a time.

  3. keannu's Avatar
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    #3

    Re: including an elephant

    Okay, I amended it.

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    #4

    Re: including an elephant

    Quote Originally Posted by keannu View Post
    Does the first "including" describe "each bill" or "an animal" What difference does a comma make?

    ex) In South Africa, for instance, each bill has a colorful image of an animal, including an elephant, a lion, and a buffalo. Likewise, a Tanzanian bill has a picture of a giraffe, and a Ugandan bill shows various animals, including a hippopotamus.
    I think you mean "...each bill has an image of an animal, such as an elephant, a lion or a buffalo."

    The way the original reads, it sounds like each bill has those three animals on it, plus some other animal.

  4. keannu's Avatar
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    #5

    Re: including an elephant

    Thank you, but I meant what the function of the comma is. Does the comma restrict "an animal" or describe the subject "each bill"? What if the comma was removed? Does it still mean the same thing?

  5. keannu's Avatar
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    #6

    Re: including an elephant

    I'd better take an example. Are the following interpretations right?

    1.Each bill has a colorful image of an animal including an elephant, a lion, and a buffalo = Each bill has a colorful image of an animal that includes an elephant, a lion, and a buffalo
    2.each bill has a colorful image of an animal, including an elephant, a lion, and a buffalo= Each bill has a colorful image of an animal while(and) the bill includes an elephant, a lion, and a buffalo

  6. 5jj's Avatar
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    #7

    Re: including an elephant

    Neither of those sentences is clear. SD's version in post #4 was clear.

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    #8

    Re: including an elephant

    Quote Originally Posted by keannu View Post
    I'd better take an example. Are the following interpretations right?

    1.Each bill has a colorful image of an animal including an elephant, a lion, and a buffalo = Each bill has a colorful image of an animal that includes an elephant, a lion, and a buffalo
    2.each bill has a colorful image of an animal, including an elephant, a lion, and a buffalo= Each bill has a colorful image of an animal while(and) the bill includes an elephant, a lion, and a buffalo
    You understand the use of the comma to differentiate restrictive from non-restrictive clauses.
    But the sentences are fundamentally flawed. An animal cannot include an elephant, a lion, and a buffalo (unless it has eaten them). It should be rephrased if you want to use it as an example of some other grammatical principle.

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