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  1. keannu's Avatar
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    #1

    because otherwise the beetles would be found in larger numbers.

    How could bacteria kill beetles intentionally? I can't understand that a creature without any thoughts could do such a thing. What do you think? Did I understand wrong?

    is25
    ex)Forming hypotheses and making predictions are two important skills involved in scientific investigation. A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for an observation or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation. For example, in the 1950s, Colorado beetles were able to resist chemical insecticides. A scientist hypothesized that bacteria living in the beetles' environment were killing many beetles, because otherwise the beetles would be found in larger numbers....The scientist predicted that he would find some bacteria in dead beetles when he examined them. This prediction was confirmed when bacteria called Bt were discovered to have killed Colorado beetles and other insects.

  2. 5jj's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: because otherwise the beetles would be found in larger numbers.

    There is no question of intention. The scientist hypothesized that the bacteia were killing many beetles because (and here comes the reson behind his hypothesis) beetles would be found in larger numbers if bacteria were not killing them. The hypothesis was later confirmed.

  3. emsr2d2's Avatar
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    #3

    Re: because otherwise the beetles would be found in larger numbers.

    Where the writer has used "bacteria were killing many beetles" it simply means "many beetles were dying due to bacteria". As 5jj said, there is no suggestion of intention.

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    #4

    Re: because otherwise the beetles would be found in larger numbers.

    It says "killed," not "murdered." You can kill without intention.

  4. 5jj's Avatar
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    #5

    Re: because otherwise the beetles would be found in larger numbers.

    Quote Originally Posted by SoothingDave View Post
    It says "killed," not "murdered." You can kill without intention.
    That was the way I read it, but emsr2d2's post reminded me that some people, including some native speakers, tend to assume that kill=murder.

  5. Barb_D's Avatar
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    #6

    Re: because otherwise the beetles would be found in larger numbers.

    Hmm. How do they say "kill as non-intended, non-volitional." Cause life cessation? Lead to a non-living state?
    I'm not a teacher, but I write for a living. Please don't ask me about 2nd conditionals, but I'm a safe bet for what reads well in (American) English.

  6. 5jj's Avatar
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    #7

    Re: because otherwise the beetles would be found in larger numbers.

    Quote Originally Posted by Barb_D View Post
    Hmm. How do they say "kill as non-intended, non-volitional." Cause life cessation? Lead to a non-living state?
    A friend of mine was killed by a drunken driver. My thoughts about the driver are unprintable, but I must concede that the killing was non-intended, non-volitional.

  7. emsr2d2's Avatar
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    #8

    Re: because otherwise the beetles would be found in larger numbers.

    My aunt died from cancer.
    My aunt was killed by cancer.
    Cancer killed my aunt.

    No matter how you look at it or how you word it, my aunt had cancer and then she died. Equally, the cancer has no volition or intention but it still killed her.

  8. Barb_D's Avatar
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    #9

    Re: because otherwise the beetles would be found in larger numbers.

    That's why I agree that "kill" applies to intention or non-intention. (Though in my opinion, if you get behind the wheel drunk, it's not much different than going into a mall blindfolded with a loaded gun.) The driver killed your friend. Cancer killed your aunt.
    I'm not a teacher, but I write for a living. Please don't ask me about 2nd conditionals, but I'm a safe bet for what reads well in (American) English.

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