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  1. #1

    CONCLUSION - would someone be so kind and ve a look at it please!?!

    actually, I ve two questions. First, does this sentence make sense:
    "Extended time of schooling leads to a delayed entrance into labour force which might also contribute to the low levels of youth employment in Spain."
    I couldn't find a few translations and now I m not sure if this sentence makes sense.

    Second, I finished a conclusion and would be very thankful if someone could check it! THANX

    Conclusion & Outlook
    Spain’s relative low employment rate in 2005 can partly be explained by the difficulty to absorb the massive unemployment generated since the 60s. Despite two phases of economic regression, further factors contributed to massive unemployment since the 60s in Spain. These factors are: a relative late transition from an agriculture-based to an industrial-service-based economy, an increase in labour supply by an inflow of former emigrants and women joining the labour market, great political and institutional changes and disinflationary policies. The unimproved low level of youth labour force participation can partly be explained by the dramatic upwards trend in female supply since the 90s.
    As shown above, not all orthodoxy believed factors explain low employment in Spain. However, the following factors showed influence on the employment situation in Spain: a overall low education level, a lack of vocational training and low investments in research and development. The lack in research and development combined with an increase in temporary employment could also lead to a “specialization of the Spanish economy in low value added goods and services, a strategy of growth highly dangerous in the middle long run” (Muñoz de Bustillo Llorente 2002:49). Furthermore, a poor performance of the employment service combined with a discrimination of unemployed as employers prefer employed applicants contributes partly to high percentages in long-term unemployed and a low level of geographical mobility is an indicator which explains to the high stability of low employment in some regions.
    The statistical analysis showed that low employment is concentrated on a few demographic groups and that the exceptionally low female participation and employment rates in Spain undermine the country’s average. Spain’s lack of adequate working time flexibility partly expleins low employment and labour participation rates among women. Spain remains among the OECD countries with the fewest part-time jobs. Part-time work enables women to combine children and work. Spanish women in work either full-time or don’t work at all. Furthermore, female employment is highly associated with Service- and Public sector employment; both remain under averaged in Spain compared to other European countries. Moreover, Spain’s Family policies (e.g. childcare services) provide a low degree of choice about employment for mothers and the taxation system is discouraging for married women to participate the labour market.
    According to Algan and Cahuc (2005), family attitudes display a higher statistical evidence of explanation for the employment rate estimations of different demographic groups than most other factors used in the current literature: “labour supply interactions within the nuclear and the extended family are a key element for understanding the evolution pattern of employment rates” (Algan/Cahuc 2005:2). The extended family networks in Spain plays a prominent insurance role for families and their income affects negatively the intensity of job search which affects especially young Spaniards. Furthermore, the lower level of independency among the youth might negatively effect Spain’s youth employment. Furthermore, the positive bias in favour of male job priority and traditional perception of motherhood both lead to a low female labour participation and thus a low female employment rates.
    In view of these results and Spain’s constant and dramatic increase in female employment I predict that Spain will be among the best performing countries in terms of employment in the near future. First, Spain remains still in the process of convergence. Second, it is increasingly evident that the qualitative improvement of the Spanish workforce is expected to contribute to a reduction in unemployment and increase in employment in the future. Third and most important, the low female employment rate which undermines the country’s average is in mainly rooted in Spain’s family culture. However, the current generation of Spanish mothers with small children is the first one in which a majority of its members are in paid work. Figures reflect the “Europeanization” of the labour market for women in Spain. Along the lines of the philosophical principle of equality of the sexes underlying the higher participation rate of women in the labour markets of northern Europe, I might refer to the principle of growing equality of the sexes in the Spanish case, where the presence of women is fast approaching the same level as men. Moreover, since policies depend on family preferences as far as they are shaped by individuals they will consequently change as the family attitudes change and increase the level of choice about employment for mothers. The main conclusion is that increases in female participation rates which are primarily explained by changing norms and values in society will constantly lead to overall higher employment rates.

  2. Editor,
    English Teacher
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    Re: CONCLUSION - would someone be so kind and ve a look at it please!?!

    Firstly- it's one hell of a paragraph to read. Couldn't we split it up a bit?
    orthodoxy believed factors- I'd reword this- orthodox factors?
    showed influence- showed an influence
    lack in- of
    concentrated on a few demographic groups- in
    exceptionally low female participation- nothing to do with the language, but doesn't this contradict the point about a dramatic increase in female supply? (I'm not an economist so I could be talking rubbish)
    in work either full-time or don’t work at all.- women in work either work full-time...
    (Algan/Cahuc 2005:2)- your referencing is inconsistent- here you give a page reference, earlier you didn't
    networks in Spain plays- network plays, or networks play
    lower level of independency- independence?
    low female employment rate which undermines the country’s average- low female employment rate, which undermines the country’s average,
    Along the lines of- this sentence doesn't read that well as the opening goes on for so long- you could shorten it a bit by saying With the principle...
    by individuals- by individuals,

  3. #3

    Re: CONCLUSION - would someone be so kind and ve a look at it please!?!


    Thank you again for Ur help!!

    In regard to our question, there is a dramatic increase in female employment/labour participation but even though an increase of more than 150% during the last decade, the rates remain low compared to empl rates of men or female empl rates in other countries.

    Maybe I should find a way to make this clearer.... at first glace it seems contradictory...


  4. Editor,
    English Teacher
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    Re: CONCLUSION - would someone be so kind and ve a look at it please!?!

    OK- I think the point needs expanding to make that clearer.

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