1) "Heavy" refers to the dosage of medication and (more probably) to the type of medicine, because he names "morphine".
"By the clock" means exactly on time.
2) about "moving ahead" I guess the same as you do.
"do what you would want done for me" means: whatever you thing is good for me, you yourself do.
3) equation (here) = condition, situation,...
4) the idea that a doctor is a superman who can heal everything is absolutely nonsense. (a load of is used to emphasize ridiculousness)
5) Maybe. It depends on the context. "to give up on something" means "to lose hope about it"