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  1. keannu's Avatar
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    #1

    helping reduce the body temperature

    I got confused after learning even participial phrases can be interpreted as "which+verb" to refer to the whole previous sentence. Does this "helping" mean "so(and) the blood vessels help" or "which(the air currents over the blood vessels so blood is cooled more efficiently) help"?
    Before, I only thought such participial phrase has the subject of the sentence as its subject, but I now have to think about which is which. A similar example would be like this.

    I gave her a present, strenthening our friendship => "so I strenthened" or "which(the fact) strengthened"?
    I gave her a present, thanking her for the help => Definitely "while I was thanking".

    st201
    ex)A distinctive characteristic of the African elephant is its extremely large ears. Besides their important use in hearing, the ears serve as radiators to prevent overheating...Spreading of the ears and ear-flapping are characteristically seen when elephants stand in the shade on hot days because of high-temperature. The action increases the air currents over the blood vessels so blood is cooled more efficiently, helping reduce the body temperature.

  2. Raymott's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: helping reduce the body temperature

    Quote Originally Posted by keannu View Post
    I got confused after learning even participial phrases can be interpreted as "which+verb" to refer to the whole previous sentence. Does this "helping" mean "so(and) the blood vessels help"
    No, it doesn't. The blood vessels are not mentioned at all as an active component of the system (or the sentence). You have a choice of "the action", "air currents", or the whole preceding sentence.

    or "which(the air currents over the blood vessels so blood is cooled more efficiently) help"?
    Yes, or "the action" which includes the ears flapping from the previous sentence.

    Before, I only thought such participial phrase has the subject of the sentence as its subject, but I now have to think about which is which. A similar example would be like this.

    I gave her a present, strenthening our friendship => "so I strenthened" or "which(the fact) strengthened"?
    I gave her a present, thanking her for the help => Definitely "while I was thanking".

    st201
    ex)A distinctive characteristic of the African elephant is its extremely large ears. Besides their important use in hearing, the ears serve as radiators to prevent overheating...Spreading of the ears and ear-flapping are characteristically seen when elephants stand in the shade on hot days because of high-temperature. The action increases the air currents over the blood vessels so blood is cooled more efficiently, helping reduce the body temperature.
    Yes you do have to think about which is which - until, as for a native, the meaning is almost immediately obvious.

  3. keannu's Avatar
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    #3

    Re: helping reduce the body temperature

    Thanks a lot! What about this? Does it depend?

    ex)I gave her a present, strenthening our friendship => "so I strenthened" or "which(the fact) strengthened"?

  4. Raymott's Avatar
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    #4

    Re: helping reduce the body temperature

    Quote Originally Posted by keannu View Post
    Thanks a lot! What about this? Does it depend?

    ex)I gave her a present, strenthening our friendship => "so I strenthened" or "which(the fact) strengthened"?
    I would assume that this means that giving her the present strengthened your friendship. This may have been your goal in giving the present, or it may just have been a natural outcome.
    It doesn't mean that while you were strengthening your friendship, you have her a present.

  5. keannu's Avatar
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    #5

    Re: helping reduce the body temperature

    I really really want to tell you that in English grammar books in Korea, two types of participial phrase interpretation are typified. One is simultaneous action, and the other is consecutive action.
    So doesn't it have any possibility of a consecutive action of "so I strenthened" like "I studied hard, getting(so I got) the full mark in Math"?

    ex)I gave her a present, strenthening our friendship => "so I strenthened"

  6. Raymott's Avatar
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    #6

    Re: helping reduce the body temperature

    Quote Originally Posted by keannu View Post
    I really really want to tell you that in English grammar books in Korea, two types of participial phrase interpretation are typified. One is simultaneous action, and the other is consecutive action.
    Exactly.
    Simultaneous action: "While I was strengthening our friendship, I gave her a present".
    Consecutive action: "I gave her a present, thus strengthening our friendship."

    So doesn't it have any possibility of a consecutive action of "so I strenthened" like "I studied hard, getting(so I got) the full mark in Math"?

    ex)I gave her a present, strenthening our friendship => "so I strenthened"
    That's what I said.
    "Giving her the present strengthened your friendship."
    In your words, "I gave her present, getting so that our relationship was strengthened." - though this is not a natural way of saying it.
    "so I strengthened ..." is not a good way of expressing causation; but if it helps you, and if you mean "I gave her a present and, as a consequence, our friendship strengthened", use it.

  7. emsr2d2's Avatar
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    #7

    Re: helping reduce the body temperature

    Keannu, there is a "g" in the middle of "strengthen".
    Remember - if you don't use correct capitalisation, punctuation and spacing, anything you write will be incorrect.

  8. BobK's Avatar
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    #8

    Re: helping reduce the body temperature

    Quote Originally Posted by emsr2d2 View Post
    Keannu, there is a "g" in the middle of "strengthen".
    And it's pronounced /streŋθən/ not /strenθən/ (whatever local teachers may have told you!)

    b

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