As long as the same article would apply to each item in the list, you only have to use it once. That is, if one of the items on the list is plural, so that "a" doesn't apply, you can't use it that way, or if one (for some reason) needs a "the" instead of an "a," you can't use it that way, but otherwise, you can.
Make sure you pack a flashlight, compass, waterproof container, rain jacket, and water bottle, in addition to your passport. (You don't pack "a" passport because it's a specific passport.)
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