Student or Learner
I am really confused now that I saw that the meaning of "by doing" can be the same with that of "in doing" in some sentences, but referring to Longman dictionary, "in" means "while" there. That's why I still think "in doing" cannot be the same with "by doing"
In trying to protect the queen, Howard had put his own life in danger.
But Longman dictionary also says "in" means "as a result of". Is that why we can see the meaning of them is the same sometimes?
Thank you and please help me out.
NOT A TEACHER
I was wondering whether these definitions and examples from macmillandictionary.com might be helpful.
IN doing something = As a result of doing one thing, you also do something else. ("In trying to solve one problem, I created another [ problem].")
BY doing something = Using a particular method to achieve something. ("By using the internet you can do your shopping from home." (P.S. Americans capitalize "Internet," and most would use a comma after "internet" in that example. The Macmillan dictionary, I believe, is British.)
I think, therefore, that "BY trying to protect the queen, Howard had put his own life in danger" would be "wrong" because it would give the wrong meaning. I think that it would mean something like:
Howard decided to protect Her Majesty because he wanted to put his own life in danger. (I assume that this is NOT the meaning that the writer wanted to give to readers.)
HAVE A NICE DAY!