Results 1 to 9 of 9
  1. #1
    pseudo is offline Junior Member
    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Interested in Language
      • Native Language:
      • Korean
      • Home Country:
      • South Korea
      • Current Location:
      • South Korea
    Join Date
    Mar 2012
    Posts
    70

    Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    "So far, dummies have provided invaluable data on how human bodies react in crashes and have contributed greatly to [improved / improving] vehicle design."

    I think both can be correct.

    If the answer is 'improved(past participle)', the objective of the preposition 'to' is design.

    But if the answer is 'improving', the objective of the preposition 'to' is 'improving' itself.

    And the 'improving' is not present participle but gerund.

    Can both be correct or only one of the two?

  2. #2
    philo2009 is offline Key Member
    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Academic
      • Native Language:
      • British English
      • Home Country:
      • UK
      • Current Location:
      • Japan
    Join Date
    Jan 2009
    Posts
    1,482

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Quote Originally Posted by pseudo View Post
    "So far, dummies have provided invaluable data on how human bodies react in crashes and have contributed greatly to [improved / improving] vehicle design."

    I think both can be correct.

    If the answer is 'improved(past participle)', the objective of the preposition 'to' is design.

    But if the answer is 'improving', the objective of the preposition 'to' is 'improving' itself.

    And the 'improving' is not present participle but gerund.

    Can both be correct or only one of the two?
    Only the gerund form is acceptable here.

  3. #3
    pseudo is offline Junior Member
    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Interested in Language
      • Native Language:
      • Korean
      • Home Country:
      • South Korea
      • Current Location:
      • South Korea
    Join Date
    Mar 2012
    Posts
    70

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    I'm afraid it is not.

    The original text has the past participle form.

  4. #4
    bhaisahab's Avatar
    bhaisahab is offline Moderator
    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Retired English Teacher
      • Native Language:
      • British English
      • Home Country:
      • England
      • Current Location:
      • Ireland
    Join Date
    Apr 2008
    Posts
    25,698

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Both are possible.

  5. #5
    pseudo is offline Junior Member
    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Interested in Language
      • Native Language:
      • Korean
      • Home Country:
      • South Korea
      • Current Location:
      • South Korea
    Join Date
    Mar 2012
    Posts
    70

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Thanks for your reply.

  6. #6
    Rover_KE is offline Moderator
    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Retired English Teacher
      • Native Language:
      • English
      • Home Country:
      • England
      • Current Location:
      • England
    Join Date
    Jun 2010
    Posts
    31,888

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Your thanks are appreciated, pseudo, but you don't need to send them in a separate post.

    We are all happy to accept a simple click on the Like button as your acknowledgement of our help.


    Rover

  7. #7
    philo2009 is offline Key Member
    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Academic
      • Native Language:
      • British English
      • Home Country:
      • UK
      • Current Location:
      • Japan
    Join Date
    Jan 2009
    Posts
    1,482

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Quote Originally Posted by pseudo View Post
    I'm afraid it is not.

    The original text has the past participle form.
    Sorry, I misread your post in haste, thinking the choice to be (the usual one for learners) between gerund and infinitive. Yes, indeed, the past participle 'improved', functioning as an adnominal adjunct to NP 'vehicle design', is perfectly possible.

  8. #8
    hombre viejo is offline Newbie
    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Interested in Language
      • Native Language:
      • American English
      • Home Country:
      • United States
      • Current Location:
      • United States
    Join Date
    Jan 2013
    Posts
    23

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    I think you are right. Either can be used as the object of the preposition, and "improving" in this case is a gerund - a verbal noun - not a present participle. In that instance, "design" would be an adjective and "vehicle" would thus have to be an adverb modifying it. However, I can find no dictionary use of the word "vehicle" as an adverb.
    Last edited by hombre viejo; 19-Jan-2013 at 21:10. Reason: uneasy about "vehicle" use as an adverb

  9. #9
    5jj's Avatar
    5jj is offline VIP Member
    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Retired English Teacher
      • Native Language:
      • British English
      • Home Country:
      • England
      • Current Location:
      • Czech Republic
    Join Date
    Oct 2010
    Posts
    28,854

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Quote Originally Posted by hombre viejo View Post
    . In that instance, "design" would be an adjective and "vehicle" would thus have to be an adverb modifying it. However, I can find no dictionary use of the word "vehicle" as an adverb.
    No. 'Vehicle design' is a Noun Phrase. 'Vehicle' is not, and cannot be, an adverb.

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •