Student or Learner
What do we call this kind of exercises?
1+1 = ?
Is it a "math problem" or "math question"?
In British English, I would call it a "maths problem". However, "maths question" would be quite acceptable as well.
In fact, I would be more likely to call it an "arithmetic problem", as I don't consider that simple adding-up, subtraction, multiplication, and division of simple numbers really count as mathematics.
I'm not a teacher of English, but I have spoken it for (almost) all of my life....
It's a "math problem" in AmE.
Arithmetic is a subset of mathematics, not something outside of it.