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When we look back to history of translation in Turkey ,we can see how much we improved ourselves and also we can see that there is still a long way to go in the context of translation studies. While Ataturk was creating a completely independent and cohesive state, not at all similar to Ottoman Empire , his reforms removed religion from education system and the courts to allow a more modern , secular system, which have shared interests and similar customs with the countries of Europe. For that reason translation of western classics into Turkish have played a fundamental role in shaping and enriching Turkish culture. Children’s literature because of its originality to the target readership in the first place requires moresensitivity more than other types of translation. Let’s lay aside elements in the nature of translation and cases what makes impossible to translation, even the expression of child in the beginning shows that the target translation is different from other types of translation. First and foremost “ childhood” in a way depends on the individuals personal history, that is to say childhood is unique and on the other side a common term which belongs to all society. As saying children’s literature is written only for children does not provide any realistic perspective , most of time cannot solve the problem concerned with target audience . Although children’s literature addresses to children, there are also some works addresses to adults. Here the author benefiting from the limited knowledge of children insert some elements ( or abuse it) to the text which seems funny and only can be understood adults .Another alternative way is to write at the same time where both for children and adultscan enjoy. In fact, a large majority of literary works are written for adults , it has to be keep in mind that a book for children which appeals to children there may be exist only in theory. After Translator’s of children literature decide the readers of target text second step is to figure out in which context and how they are going to reach to target culture.
There is no doubt that this decision is clearly related with target audience and target culture. In this sense, a contradiction lies on the basis of translation. The aim of translation of children’s literature is to introduce children other culture and enlarge their horizon but not the usebooks to brainwash . However most of time foreign elements are omitted from the text considering that children are not be able to understand. Here exactly at this point occurs the importance of children’s literature and cultural motifs. Translator has to show to which group he addresses without forgetting to give sense of foreign elements as in the original. During the translation process there are two things which are connected each other like the diversity of readers and cultural motifs. What a translator has to do is to keep the balance between them.
During the Westernization process in the history of Turkey, Translation Bureau was formed in order to create a common cultural basis and a new literary repertoire for the newly forming Turkish nation. The bureau was operational between 1940 and 1966”, and over a thousand translation of mainly western classics were produced. The Translation Bureau prepared translations for 47 series which were published by the Ministry of Education between 1940 and 1966. These series were known under the general title Translations from World Literature. According to declaration of Translation Bureau, over five hundred titles were published between 1943 and 1947 by the state-sponsored publishing house called M.E.B. Yayınevi (A publisher of the Turkish Ministry of Education), and it was envisaged that more titles would be published in the years to come.However the list of classics drawn up by the former Ministry of Education has been reduced to “100 Essential Readings” recommended by the religious leaning Justice and Development Party (AKP), the government's Ministry. After AKP became power , they began to get involved in translation business(6).One day M.E. B which has a 80 years back round suddenly disappeared during the privatization process. of the publications of textbooks. Classic books especially which have a Western origin used to occupy a huge place in the history of Turkish cultural life. This interest established a ground for Western classics which is always superior to Turkish culture. So, only with translation Turkey people could reach to those classics. At this point , Turkish Government started to manipulate famous children’s literature. SabriGurses who is one of the important scholar asked the following questions in his article: “How come the publications of this Publishing House that belonged to the state and therefore the Turkish people got privatized? How did this publishing house disappear? What has become of the Ministry’spublishing activities carried out by means of people’s money? How come the list ofclassics drawn up by the former Ministry of Education has been reduced to the socalled“100 Essential Readings” recommended by the religious leaning Justice and Development Party (AKP), the government's Ministry?” (7)(2006;M.E.B. Klasiklerini Halka Geri Verin | ÇEV?R?B?L?M). He continues his words by saying “ There is no sensible explanation how the national publishing house can be lost. How can be disappeared all translation works. This situation can be understood only by making comparison ideology in Russia where the history witnessed the ideological publications manyyears ago. Those “ 100 essential readings” were recommended to less developed public schools .Because the private schools already had the translations which are not manipulated . The publishing houses who took into consideration of their target clients, preferred to do some manipulations on book which is translated before by someone unknown for the purpose of reducing the price and published it.
Involvement of government in the business helped them discover the religious elements inherent in the classics, which they had disregarded in the course of the modernization process. The Manipulation on Children’s books were a good tool to impose religious elements. Every publishing house translates these works according to their own ideology. A translation can serve political aims quite easily within the framework of certain ideologies. There are various version of Alice in Wonderland in Turkey. Some of parts are omitted or translators preferred to shorten or summarize the source text.Thus , within the framework of Descriptive Translation studies any research on translation should take basis the hypothesis that “ translations are the facts of one system: the target system. Torcy states that It is advisable ,then , first to take target texts which are regarded as translations from the intrinsic point of view of the target culture without reference to their corresponding source texts (….) and to study them from the view point of their acceptability in their respective home systems , as target language as target language text and /or astranslations into that language(8)
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