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    #1

    By in time clauses,

    1. By the time I graduate, I will have saved enough to ...
    2. By the end of this term, I will have saved enough to ...
    Would you please tell me the rule when to use the simple form and when to use the future form after by the (time adverbial), since the use of 'will' is not permitted in time clauses.

  1. MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: By in time clauses,

    You are asking about the future perfect tense: will + have + verb past participle.

    This is used for a future action that will be completed before a specified time in the future.

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    #3

    Re: By in time clauses,

    Quote Originally Posted by MikeNewYork View Post
    You are asking about the future perfect tense: will + have + verb past participle.

    This is used for a future action that will be completed before a specified time in the future.
    No, dear Mike, I'm asking about 'by the time I graduate' OR 'by the time I'll graduate' OR 'by the time I'd graduate'

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    #4

    Re: By in time clauses,

    'By the time I graduate' is correct.

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    #5

    Re: By in time clauses,

    Quote Originally Posted by Rover_KE View Post
    'By the time I graduate' is correct.
    What's the reason? Can I call it a time clause?
    So what is the definition of a time clause?
    Thank you,

  2. MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    #6

    Re: By in time clauses,

    Quote Originally Posted by atabitaraf View Post
    No, dear Mike, I'm asking about 'by the time I graduate' OR 'by the time I'll graduate' OR 'by the time I'd graduate'
    Yes, and your graduation day is a specified time in the future. I would use "by the time I graduate".

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