Student or Learner
As in the four lines from the end, if people's consciences do not bother them, isn't conscience true conscience any more? I think this evokes the sense of contradiction. If you have conscience, it wouldn't allow your lazy, bad thinkings to happen like that.
23)How reliable a guide is conscience? People often say, “Follow your conscience” or “You should never go against your conscience.” Such advice is not very helpful, however. Indeed, it can sometimes be bad advice. First, when we are genuinely perplexed about what (we ought to do), we are trying to figure out what (our conscience ought to be saying to us). When it is not possible to do both, should we keep our promise to a colleague or come to the aid of an old friend? To be told / that we should follow our conscience is no help at all. Second, it maynot always be good for us to follow our conscience. It all depends on what our conscience says. On the one hand, sometimes people’s consciences do not bother them / when theyshould ─ perhaps because people didn’t think through theimplications of what they were doing or perhaps because they failed to internalize (strongly enough) the appropriate moral principles. On the other hand, a person’s conscience might disturb about something (that is perfectly all right).
"Conscience" can be used as a shorthand for a "good conscience" or a "well-formed conscience." Sort of like people talk about "values" without specifying they mean "good values."
But there is nothing wrong with the use in your original posting. People have consciences whether they are well-formed or not.