Some words in English work like that - "hat" for example. It would be quite difficult to spell that incorrectly. However, the word "borough" is pronounced "burra" - if you heard the word and had no idea how to spell it, you would probably get it wrong. If English used the "spell it like it sounds" method, it would be spelt "burra". We have so many homonyms, the method wouldn't work. Only the spelling and the context can tell you the difference between "through" and "threw", or "bow" and "bough".
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