Yes, #1 is correct. "Having" creates a participial phrase that is a modifier of "pavement".Only in the most extraordinary circumstances is the case that a new pavement is caused to fail by the application of a single wheel load of whatever magnitude. The general experience is that repeated applications of loads result in the repeated development of stress tending to cause deterioration, and that the ability o withstand strain progressively diminishes with increasing number of load applications. If failure occur in this way, a rational design approach must be based upon a study of responses of the pavement to repeated cyclical loading, on the nature of that loading, and on the number of load application which can take place before the pavement fails. This induces the notion of a pavement ............. a predetermined and finite life.
1. having2. had3. to have4. having gad
I have no idea about the structure. The answer key says it is No.1. I don't get the reason.
Student or Learner