Remember that, in general, we need more context to say whether one choice or another is correct. However, in this case, I can't think of any situation where "I'm failed" could be used so it's incorrect.
I have failed.
I am failing.
I was/have been failed by [someone/something else].
At a stretch, in BrE, you might hear someone say "I've been failed" or "I was failed" when they do not succeed in passing their driving test. Of course, what actually happened was "I failed" but people don't like taking personal responsibility for failing their driving test, they prefer to blame the examiner for not awarding enough marks for a pass. So you'll hear "He failed me" or "I was/got failed [for no good reason!]"
Student or Learner