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    #1

    Present Perfect

    Dear members and teachers:


    PRESENT PERFECT.


    It is an event (an unspecific action) done in the past that has a strong connection with the present, or connects an event done in an unspecific time in the past with the present. It is used to explain that something in the past matters now. It is an action done in unspecific time before now; the exact time is not important.


    1) He has lived in New York.


    He lived in New York (unspecific action done in the past), but now (present time) he doesn't live in New York.


    2) You have forgotten your wallet.


    At the time to use your wallet (present time), you realized that you forgot your wallet (unspecific action done in the past).


    a) TO TALK ABOUT PAST EXPERIENCE.


    She has traveled to Europe five times; has eaten cocodrile meat and has studied three languages.


    I haven't been in this restaurant before; We have visted that place several times.


    b) TO TALK ABOUT RECENT PAST ACTION.


    1) The teacher has decided to canceled the class.


    While we were taking class or when we were about to take the class (present time), the teacher decided to canceled the class. (action recently done in the past).


    2) The government have just issued a curfew.


    All of a sudden (present time), the government issued a curfew (past action recently done in the past)

    C) TO EXPRESS A SPECIFIC ACTION THAT BEGAN IN THE PAST AND IT I STILL IN THE PRESENT.


    1) They have studied English since 2000.


    They began to study English in 2000 (specific action done in the past). and they're still study English (present time)


    2) I have lived here since 1973


    I live here (present time) since 1973 (specific action done in the past).


    GRAMMAR:


    It is formed with the simple present of the verb to HAVE (as an auxiliary verb) and with the past participle of the main verb - , LIVE, FORGET, STUDY, EAT, etc. -, which it is the one which makes the action)


    a) In order to form a negative statement, just add NOT to the auxiliary verb HAVE


    You have not forgotten my wallet; /He has not lived in New York; / They haven't studied English since 2000


    b) In order to form a question change the position of the subject pronoun (personal pronoun) with the auxiliary verb HAVE.


    1) You have forgotten my wallet.


    QUESTION Have you forgotten my wallet?


    2) He has lived in New York.


    QUESTION Has he lived in New York?


    3) We have studied English since 2000.


    QUESTION Have we study English since 2000?


    c) Adverbs of frecuency are placed between the auxiliary verb HAVE and the main verb (FORGET, LIVE, STUDY, EAT, etc.).


    1) I have already taken my wallet with me.


    2) Have you alredy taken your wallet with you?


    3) She has never eaten meat.


    4) Has she ever eaten meat?

    OBSERVANCE:


    Use the Present Perfect with unspecifict time references that refer to the time up to now. THIS and TODAY are specific times, but in the present.


    1) This week, I have gone three times to the city.


    This week (present time), I went three times to the city (past action done in the past).


    THIS WEEK is a specific present time; the week is still on progress I WENT THREE TIMES TO THE CITY, the days are unknown - they are unspecific -. (it could have been on monday, wednesday and friday, or other days).


    2) This month, she has visited the dentist for times.


    This month is a specific present time; the month has not ended yet (present time), I visited the dentist four times (past action done in the past).


    3) Today, you have written two letters.


    Today (present time), I wrote two letters (past action done in the past).


    TODAY is a specific present time; the day has not passed yet.


    NOTE:


    Do not use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions in the past, such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, use the SIMPLE PAST for specific times in the past.


    YESTERDAY, LAST WEEK and ONE YEAR AGO are specific times that have passed; they are specific times ago.


    1) Yestaerday I wrote three letters.


    2) A week ago you visited your doctor.


    3) Last week she went to the city.


    I ask for your help in verifying if I am wrong in some of the points I have expressed about this topic.


    Regards.

    To be continued (PAST PERFECT)
    Last edited by The apprentice; 09-Jan-2014 at 07:36. Reason: Add something editing and spelling

  1. probus's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: Present Perfect

    "To be continued (PAST PERFECT)"

    Gadzooks.

    May I request that you post your questions one by one in their own threads,rather than all together in an omnibus thread.

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    #3

    Re: Present Perfect

    Thank you Probus

    5jj had already told me that before, but the PAST PERFECT is going to be posted in a new or next thread. I just wanted you to know that it will be more about the PERFECT TENSES.

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    #4

    Re: Present Perfect

    You have failed to end every sentence with a punctuation mark and have several spelling mistakes.

    Please edit your post accordingly.

    And please don't post your thoughts on the past perfect until this thread has been dealt with.

  2. Barb_D's Avatar
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    #5

    Re: Present Perfect

    Do you have questions for us or is this an explanation of this tense for the benefit of others?
    I'm not a teacher, but I write for a living. Please don't ask me about 2nd conditionals, but I'm a safe bet for what reads well in (American) English.

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    #6

    Re: Present Perfect

    The apprentice ended the post with


    I ask for your help in verifying if I am wrong in some of the points I express about this topic.
    It's quite a mammoth task.

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    #7

    Re: Present Perfect

    Thanks Rover-KE for your subjections.


    I just corrected some of the mistakes I made, but it may be more mistake.
    Last edited by The apprentice; 08-Jan-2014 at 14:17.

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    #8

    Re: Present Perfect

    Barb-D


    I would like to know if this kind of thread is not allowed by the forum rules; I do not want to break the rules.

    Please, just let me know.


    My best regards.

  3. 5jj's Avatar
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    #9

    Re: Present Perfect

    You clearly have a good understanding of how the present perfect is used, The apprentice. Unfortunately, there are many mistakes, unnatural expressions and slightly suspect explanations in your text. Most of us simply do not have enough time to undertake the correction and explanation necessary.

  4. panglossa's Avatar
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    #10

    Re: Present Perfect

    Just a suggestion to the poster: you could try breaking this up into 'STRUCTURE' and 'FUNCTION', and also avoid vague expressions like 'unspecific action'.

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