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Feed emissions of GHG per Kg of Pig meat are a function of the feed conversion efficiency and the emissions per kg of feed. Local feeds tend to have lower emissions per kg than non-local concentrate feeds, because (a) many of them are swill or second grade crops which are allocated lower emissions in proportion to their reduced value (b) they have lower transport emissions and (b) feed blending emissions and they are less likely associated with land use change FAO, 2013). Nevertheless, large pig farms use imported feeds.
Costarican pork farming denotes the easiest pollution to perceive with the unpleasant odour faraway. Many farms use the oxidation lagoon method. However, the real problem behind is methane production from the enteric fermentation originated in the diet of the pigs. In Costa Rica much of the hog farms are located near the banks of rivers and streams where many farms discharged their waste and wastewater, with the consequent pollution of water. In addition, neighbours complain due unpleasant odours that encourages the existence of flies and rodents.
Both neighbourhood and environment are the main problems behind manure in pig farms. In order to prevent damage to ecosystems and inconvenience to communities the Government has established strict animal health an environment regulations. At present over 600 pig farms are using manure management systems.