Student or Learner
I'm trying to figure out the grammer of this structure. I was told that in the sentence 1 "lacking" is short for "who lack" so I can rephrase it in the form of sentence 1B.
1- The students lacking the basic knowledge in this field have to attend the compulsory courses.
1B- The students who lack the basic knowledge in this field have to attend the compulsory courses.
But in the sentence below I have no idea what "hoping" is short for.
2- He handed me the letter hoping that I wouldn't notice the errors.
Could anyone tell me what this structure is called and how it is used? What is the grammatical role of "hoping" and "lacking" in the sentences above? I would be glad to know more about this grammar.